The staging system for
cervical cancer depends on the size of the tumor, the
extent of the tumor into cell layers (stromal invasion), and spread to other
areas of the body (metastasis). Staging of cervical cancer has been done by the
American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Federation Internationale de
Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO). The two classification systems are very
The primary tumor (T) is staged in the following way:
After the tumor (T) is staged, the TNM system stages
lymph node involvement (N) to help determine the
treatment options at each stage. Lymph node involvement is staged in the
The last part of staging cervical cancer is to determine
whether cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasized). The TNM
system stages metastasis (M) in the following way:
The TNM staging system allows a doctor to
recommend the most effective treatment options and discuss the long-term
outcome (prognosis) based on the type of tumor, the stage of the cancer, and
the woman's age and overall health condition.
Stage I. Cervical carcinoma is only found in the
Stage II. Cancer extends beyond the
cervix but not onto the pelvic wall. It involves the vagina but not as far as
the lower third of the vagina.
Stage III. Cancer has extended onto
the pelvic sidewall and/or involves the lower third of the vagina. Stage III
includes tumors that block urine so it cannot flow out of the kidney or that
cause a nonfunctioning kidney.
Stage IVA. Tumor invades the
lining of the bladder or rectum, and/or extends beyond the pelvis.
CitationsAmerican Joint Committee on Cancer (2010). Cervix uteri. In AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, 7th ed., pp. 395–402. New York: Springer.
August 30, 2010
Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine & Ross Berkowitz, MD - Obstetrics and Gynecology
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