The most prominent symptom of a bunion is a hard, bony bump on the outside of the foot, especially near the base of the big toe and little toe. If you have a bunion, you might be able to see it when you look at your feet. Other bunion symptoms include:
- Swelling at the big toe joint
- Redness at the big toe joint
- Soreness around the big toe joint
- Callouses or corns, often where the toes overlap
- Pain (can be constant or come and go)
- Limited movement (usually if arthritis has caused the bunion)
There are a few causes for bunions, such as:
- Tight shoes. The most common cause of bunions is shoes that are too tight. Wearing these shoes forces your toes to press into one another, and limits the room for toe movement. Over time, this causes the joints at either the big or little toe, or sometimes both, to press out and form bunions.
- High-heeled shoes. Wearing high-heeled shoes can cause bunions because this kind of shoe puts more stress on your toes.
- Other causes. In some cases, bunions can also be caused by arthritis in the joint, foot stress, or an inherited structural problem in your foot.
Diagnosis and Tests
Some treatments that your doctor, or a podiatrist, may recommend include:
- Getting different shoes that have enough room for the toes
- Bracing, padding, taping, or splinting the foot to help support it
- Shoe inserts to help support the foot
- Medicine to help with soreness and inflammation
- Ice to help with soreness and inflammation
If your bunion doesn’t go away, is causing you a lot of pain, and is making it hard to move your feet, limiting your activity or choice of shoe gear, your doctor might recommend surgery. Surgery for bunions can:
- Straighten the big toe by removing part of the bone
- Remove some of the swollen tissue from around the joint
- Realign the bones through the foot to help realign the big toe
- Join the bones of the affected joint